IWM

 

Rotate your herbicide mode of actions

Just as rotating crops is essential to manage the weed, pest and disease threats, rotating herbicides with different modes of action is essential to manage the threat of herbicide-resistant weeds.

That doesn’t just mean using different products, but using products from different chemical groups. Resistance develops because weed populations adapt to the way the chemical affects them, so if they can survive spraying with one Group A product (for instance), resistance to other Group A products will also develop.

Use the MOA search function to check which products share the same chemistry so you can work out the most effective rotations.

No matter how extensively you rotate products, it is also important to ensure that you are:


    • Using each product at the full label rates appropriate to the size of the weeds you're targeting
    • Applying each product with higher water volumes (and appropriate ground speed) to achieve thorough and even coverage, and whenever possible,
    • Controlling weeds while they are young and actively growing (not stressed).

 

For more information or specific
advice about resistance management
program, contact your local
Bayer representative
or call our enquiry line:
1800 804 479

Herbicides by group

Identify which products are in which Group to make sure you are rotating modes of action.

 
Your results
 

Click on a mode of action to read more
Refer to the resistance maps to see its development over time

Group
A
Group
B
Group
C
Group
D
Group
F
Group
G
Group
H
Group
I
Group
J
Group
K
Group
L
Group
M
Group
N

Group Aπ Mode of Action Herbicides (ACCase inhibitors)

  • Chemical family: aryloxyphenoxy-propionates (FOPs), cyclohexanediones (DIMs) and phenylpyrazolines (DENs) are all Group A herbicides
  • Mode of Action: Inhibit production of acetyl coA carboxylase (ACCase) enzyme. This inhibition prevents the biosynthesis of fatty acids. The further formation of cell membranes in the growing points of the weed plants is prevented, leading to its death.
  • Symptoms: Slow to appear (7 - 14 days). Initial injury is observed in young leaves, these turn pale or yellow and are generally easily pulled from the plant. Anthocyanin discoloration (reddish-blue pigmentation) may also be observed on stems and leaf blades.
  • Resistance mechanism: Involves both target-site and non target-site. Resistance is due to an altered ACCase binding site or enhanced metabolism of the herbicide.

Confirmed Group A Resistant Weed Species in Australia.*

  • Annual ryegrass
  • Barnyard grass
  • Barley grass
  • Brome grass
  • Crab grass
  • Crowsfoot grass
  • Lesser canary grass
  • Paradoxa grass
  • Wild oats / Black oats

Common Group A Herbicides

Wheat
Achieve®
Axial®
Cheetah® Gold
Decision®
Foxtrot®
Topik®

Fallow
Nil

Rice
Barnstorm®
Barley
Achieve
Axial
Cheetah Gold
Decision
Foxtrot

Pasture1
Factor®
Fusilade® forte
Elantra® Xtreme
Select®
Shogun®
Verdict®
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Factor®
Fusilade® forte
Elantra® Xtreme
Select®
Shogun®
Verdict®

Oats
Nil

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group A Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Atlantis® OD
Hussar®
Sakura®
Barley
Hussar
Rice
Saturn®


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 - legume based pastures;
Annual Ryegrass
Brome Grass
Wild Oats

Group Bπ Mode of Action Herbicides (ALS inhibitors)

  • Chemical family: Sulfonureas (SUs), Imidazolinones (IMIs), Triazolopyrimidines (sulfonamides) and Pyrimidinylthiobenzoates are all Group B herbicides.
  • Mode of action: Inhibit the acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme. Inhibition leads to depletion of key branched-chain amino acids necessary for protein synthesis and plant growth.
  • Symptoms: Arrested growth within a few days after application and the appearance of chlorotic patches on the growing points of the plant, followed by slow shoot necrosis. Plants death is relatively slow.
  • Resistance mechanism: Involves both target- and non target-site. The binding site on the ALS enzyme is altered, and the ALS herbicide cannot attach itself to the protein. Additionally, enhanced herbicide metabolism has been shown as a resistance mechanism.

Confirmed Group B Resistant Weed Species in Australia.*

  • Annual ryegrass
  • Barley grass
  • Brome grass
  • Crab grass
  • Lesser canary grass
  • Paradoxa grass
  • Wild oats / Black oats
  • African turnip weed
  • Arrowhead
  • Bedstraw / Cleavers
  • Black bindweed
  • Calomba daisy
  • Charlock
  • Common sowthistle
  • Dirty Dora
  • Iceplant
  • Indian hedge mustard
  • Lincoln weed
  • Paterson’s curse
  • Prickly lettuce
  • Starfruit
  • Turnip weed
  • Wild radish
  • Wild turnip

Common Group B Herbicides

Wheat
Ally®
Atlantis®
Broadstrike®
Crusader®
Conclude®1
Eclipse®
Hussar®
Glean®
Intervix®2
Logran®
Monza®
Paradigm
Torpedo®1

Fallow
Ally
Flame®
Barley
Ally
Broadstrike
Conclude1
Eclipse
Glean
Hussar
Intervix2
Logran
Paradigm
Torpedo1

Pasture
Broadstrike
Raptor®8
Spinnaker5
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Broadstrike®9
Eclipse®3
Intervix®2
Spinnaker®4

Oats
Conclude
Eclipse
Glean
Paradigm
Torpedo

Rice
Gulliver®
Londax®

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group B Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Cheetah® Gold
Decision®
Jaguar®
Precept®
Sakura®
Tigrex®
Velocity®

Pasture
Jaguar
Tigrex
Barley
Cheetah Gold
Decision
Jaguar
Precept
Tigrex
Velocity

Fallow
Balance
Basta®
Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®6
Brodal Options®7

Rice
Saturn®
Taipan®

Oats
Precept
Tigrex


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 – Pre-mix product of two different MOA herbicides of which at least one is Group B herbicide; 2 – Clearfield varieties only; 3 – Lupins only; 4 – Chickpeas, faba beans and field peas only; 5 – Lucerne and sub clover only; 6 – Chickpeas only; 7 – Lupins and field peas only; 8 – Legume based pastures; 9 – Chickpeas, lentils and field peas.
Annual Ryegrass
Prickly Lettuce
Wild Radish
Indian Hedge Mustard

Group Cπ Mode of Action Herbicides (PS II inhibitors)

  • Chemical family: Triazines (e.g simazine), Triazinones (e.g metribuzin), Uracils, Pyridazinones, Phenylcarbamates, Ureas (e.g diuron), Amides, Nitriles (e.g bromoxynil) and Benzothiadiazinones (e.g Basagran®) are all Group C herbicides.
  • Mode of action: As photosystem II inhibitors they interfere with one of the processes of photosynthesis by which plants fix energy from sunlight.
  • Symptoms: Shutting down the energy production systems in the weeds causes chlorosis or yellowing, progressing to wilting and necrosis, and finally plant death. Symptoms from post-emergent application develop most rapidly in full sunlight. Weeds that emerge from treated soil tend to become chlorotic (turn yellow) and desiccate within 2-5 days in sunlight;
  • Resistance mechanism: Is both target- and non target-site. A mutation occurs in the gene leading to an alteration at the site of the protein where triazine binding occurs. Additionally, enhanced herbicide metabolism has been shown as a resistance mechanism#.

Confirmed Group C Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • Annual ryegrass
  • Barnyard grass
  • Liverseed grass
  • Silver grass
  • Indian hedge mustard
  • Stinging nettle
  • Wild radish

Common Group C Herbicides

Wheat
Agtryne® MA1
Bromoxynil
Flight®1
Igran®
Jaguar®1
Sencor®
Triathlon®1
Velocity®1

Fallow
Bromicide®
Diuron6

Rice
Basagran1
Barley
Agtryne MA1
Bromoxynil
Flight1
Igran
Jaguar1
Sencor
Triathlon1
Velocity1

Pasture
Jaguar1,5
simazine
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Atrazine2
Bladex®
Diuron
Sencor3
Simazine4
Terbyne®4

Oats
Agtryne MA1
Bromoxynil
Diuron
Flight1
Igran

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group C Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Atlantis®
Cheetah® Gold
Decision®
Hussar®
Sakura®
Precept®
Tigrex®

Pasture
Tigrex8
Barley
Cheetah Gold
Decision
Hussar
Precept
Tigrex

Fallow
Balance
Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®6
Brodal Options®7

Rice
Saturn®

Oats
Precept
Tigrex


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 – Pre-mix product of two different MOA herbicides of which at least one is Group C herbicide; 2 - TT canola varieties only; 3 - Chickpeas, field peas and faba beans only; 4 - TT canola varieties and grain legumes; 5 – lucerne and sub clover only; 6– SA only; 7 – chickpeas only; 4 – Lupins and field peas; 8 - legume based pastures.
Annual Ryegrass
Wild Radish
Indian Hedge Mustard

Group Dπ Mode of Action Herbicides (Inhibitors of microtubule assembly)

  • Chemical family: Dinitroanilines (e.g trifluralin), Benzioc acid, Benzamides (e.g propyzamide) and Pyridines are all Group D herbicides.
  • Mode of action: Inhibit microtubulin synthesis (cell division) necessary in the formation of cell walls, which arrests normal root growth.
  • Symptoms: Leads to dehydration of the susceptible plant as the normal function and size of the root system has been severely restricted. For those weeds that do emerge typically have stubby and pruned roots and the leaves turn purple. Grasses may have short and swollen coleoptiles while broadleaf weeds may have swollen hypocotyls.
  • Resistance mechanism: Is non-target site and thought to be associated with the hyperstabilization of mirctubules rendering them immune to dinitroaniline inhibition.

Confirmed Group D Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • Annual ryegrass
  • Dense flowered fumitory

Common Group D Herbicides

Wheat
Treflan®
TriflurX®
Stomp®

Fallow
Nil

Rice
Stomp®
Barley
Treflan
TriflurX
Stomp

Pasture
Nil
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Rustler®
Treflan
TriflurX
Stomp2

Oats
Nil

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group D Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Atlantis®
Cheetah® Gold
Decision®
Hussar®
Jaguar®
Sakura®
Precept®
Tigrex®
Velocity®
Barley
Cheetah Gold
Decision
Hussar
Precept
Jaguar
Tigrex
Velocity
Oats
Precept
Tigrex

Pasture
Jaguar4
Tigrex5


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
# - Source: http://agron-www.agron.iastate.edu/~weeds/Ag317-99/manage/herbicide/dnas.html
1 – canola only; 2 - Chickpeas, field peas and lupins only; 3 – Not registered for control of either annual ryegrass or fumitory; 4 – Chickpeas only; 5 – Field peas and lupins only; 4 – Lucerne and sub clover only; 5 – Legumes based pastures;
Annual Ryegrass
Common Fumitory

Group Fπ Mode of Action Herbicides (PDS inhibitors)

  • Chemical family: Nicotinanilides (e.g Brodal Options®), Picolinamides (e.g Paragon®) and Pyridazinones are all Group F herbicides.
  • Mode of action: Inhibit phytoene dehydrogenase, a key enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis. These carotenoids perform several functions in plants, including the absorption of light for photosynthesis and protecting the plant from photo-oxidation. In their absence there is a build up of light energy which in small plants leads to death
  • Symptoms: Visual symptoms are extensive bleaching on newer leaves and the growing point which appear within 3-4 days of application. Their speed of activity is greatest under warm, high light intensity conditions.
  • Resistance mechanism: Is currently under investigation within Australia although in the USA altered target site resistance has been confirmed in Hydrilla spp.

Confirmed Group F Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • Indian hedge mustard
  • Wild radish

Common Group F Herbicides

Wheat
Jaguar®1
Flight®1
Paragon®1
Tigrex®1
Triathlon®1

Fallow
Nil

Rice
Nil
Barley
Jaguar1
Flight1
Paragon1
Tigrex1
Triathlon1

Pasture
Jaguar1,3
Tigrex1,4
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Brodal® Options®2
Sniper®2

Oats
Flight1
Paragon®1
Tigrex1

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group F Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Eclipse®
Hussar®
Precept®
Velocity®

Fallow
Balance
Barley
Eclipse
Hussar
Precept
Velocity
Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®5
Eclipse6

Oats
Eclipse
Precept


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 – Pre-mix product of two different MOA herbicides of which at least one is Group F herbicide; 2 – Lupins and field peas only; 3 – lucerne and sub clover only; 4 – legume based pastures; 5 – chickpeas only; 6 - Lupins only;
Indian Hedge Mustard
Wild Radish

Group Gπ Mode of Action Herbicides (PPO inhibitors)

  • Chemical family: Diphenylethers (e.g Goal®), N-phenylphthalimides (e.g Valor®), Oxadzoles, Triazolinones (e.g. Affinity®), Pyrimidindiones (e.g Logran® B Power) and Phenylpyrazole (e.g Ecopar®) are all Group G herbicides;
  • Mode of action: Inhibit the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) enzyme disrupting photosynthesis resulting in the formation of free radicals which causes lipid peroxidation (membrane disruption) and plant death.
  • Symptoms: First symptoms are numerous white spots on the leaves from the spray droplets. Contacted foliage will turn bronze which is quickly followed by chlorosis and necrosis. Foliar uptake and plant desiccation occurs in 1 to 4 days
  • Resistance mechanism: Is target-site which is conferred by an amino acid deletion in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) gene.

Confirmed Group G Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • No resistance yet identified in Australia. Resistance has been confirmed in six weed species globally.

Common Group G Herbicides

Wheat
Affinity® forte
Ecopar®
Hammer®1
Goal®1
Sharpen®1
Valor®1

Fallow
Goal
Hammer

Rice
Nil
Barley
Affinity forte
Ecopar
Hammer1
Goal1
Sharpen1
Valor1

Pasture
Nil
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Ecopar1
Hammer1
Goal1
Sharpen1
Valor1

Oats
Affinity forte
Ecopar
Hammer1
Goal1
Sharpen1
Valor1

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group G Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Eclipse®
Hussar®
Jaguar®
Precept®
Tigrex®
Velocity®

Fallow
Balance
Basta®

Rice
Saturn®
Taipan®
Barley
Eclipse
Hussar
Jaguar
Precept
Tigrex
Velocity

Pasture
Jaguar5
Tigrex6
Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®2
Brodal® Options
Eclipse4

Oats
Eclipse
Precept
Tigrex


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 – registered for presowing seedbed control only; 2 – chickpeas only; 3 – Lupins and field peas; 4 - Lupins only; 5 – lucerne and sub clover only; 6– legume based pastures.



















































Group Hπ Mode of Action Herbicides (HPPD inhibitors)

  • Chemical family: Pyrazoles (e.g Velocity®) and Isoxazoles (e.g Balance®) are Group H herbicides.
  • Mode of action: Inhibit the production of the enzyme 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) which stops quinone biosynthesis. Quinone is a key factor in the synthesis of carotenoid pigment. Carotenoids are important photosynthetic pigments with many different functions in plant cells, including protection from sunlight. Without carotenoids, chlorophyll is photo-oxidised and the weed dies.
  • Symptoms: Include a bleached or white appearance due to the breakdown of chlorophyll in the plant by sunlight.
  • Resistance mechanism: Is thought to be non-target site. Research has suggested that enhanced metabolism prevents the herbicide from reaching the target site intact.

Confirmed Group H Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • No resistance yet identified in Australia. Resistance has been confirmed in six weed species globally.

Common Group H Herbicides

Wheat
Precept®1
Velocity®1

Fallow
Balance

Rice
Nil
Barley
Precept®1
Velocity®1

Pasture
Nil
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®2

Oats
Precept®1

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group H Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Eclipse®
Hussar®
Jaguar®
Tigrex®

Fallow
Basta®

Rice
Saturn®
Barley
Eclipse
Hussar
Jaguar
Tigrex

Pasture
Jaguar5
Tigrex6
Grain legumes / pulses
Brodal Options®3
Eclipse4

Oats
Tigrex


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 - Pre-mix product of two different MOA herbicides of which at least one is Group H herbicide; 2 – chickpeas only; 3 – Lupins and field peas; 4 – Lupins only; 5 – lucerne and sub clover only; 6 – legume based pastures;



















































Group Iπ Mode of Action Herbicides (Disruptors of plant cell growth)

  • Chemical family: Phenoxy-carboxylic acids (phenoxys such as 2,4-D and MCPA ), Benzoic acids (e.g Cadence®), Pyridine-carboxylic acids (Pyridines such as Lontrel® and Tordon®) and Quinoline carboxylic acids are all Group I herbicides .
  • Mode of action: Acts similar to auxin (IAA), naturally occurring plant hormones. Primary action is to affect cell wall plasticity and nucleic acid metabolism, leading to uncontrolled cell division and growth, which cause vascular tissue destruction.
  • Symptoms: Epinastic-like symptoms can often be seen within days of treatment (stem twisting, leaf malformations, etc.) followed by chlorosis at the growing point. Death of the weed can be a relatively slow process.
  • Resistance mechanism: Is currently under investigation.

Confirmed Group I Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • Indian hedge mustard
  • Wild radish

Common Group I Herbicides

Wheat & Barley
2,4-D Amine
2,4-D Ester
Agtryne® MA1
Amicide®
Buctril® MA1
Broadside®
Cadence®
Conclude1
Flight®1
Hotshot®
Kamba®
Lontrel®
MCPA
Paradigm
Paragon®1
Precept®1
Starane®1
Tigrex®1
Tordon®1
Torpedo®1
Triathlon®1
Pasture8
Buttress®
Cadence
Grazon Extra
Lontrel8
Starane
MCPA
Tigrex 1
Tordon1

Fallow
2,4-D Amine
2,4-D Ester
Cadence
Garlon®
Grazon®Xtra
Hotshot
Kamba
Starane
Tordon1

Rice
Basagran®1
Cadence
Kamba
MCPA
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Lontrel2
MCPA3

Oats
2,4-D Amine
Broadside
Buctril MA1
Cadence
Conclude1
Flight1
Hotshot
Kamba
Lontrel
MCPA
Paradigm
Paragon1
Precept1
Starane
Tigrex1
Tordon1
Torpedo1

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group I Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Eclipse®
Hussar®
Jaguar®
Velocity®

Fallow
Balance
Barley
Eclipse
Hussar
Jaguar
Velocity

Pasture
Jaguar7
Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®4
Brodal® Options®5
Eclipse6

Oats
Nil


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 - Pre-mix product of two different MOA herbicides of which at least one is Group I herbicide ; 2 - Canola only: 3 – Field peas only; 4 – Chickpeas only; 5 – Lupins and field peas; 6 – Lupins only; 7 – lucerne and sub clover only ; 8 – grass based pastures.
Hedge Mustard
Wild Radish

Group Jπ Mode of Action Herbicides (lipid synthesis inhibitors)

  • Chemical family: Chlorocarbonic acids (e.g Frenock®), Thiocarbamates (e.g Avadex®), Phosphorodithioates (e.g Prefar®) and Benzofurans (e.g Tramat®) are all Group J herbicides.
  • Mode of action: They inhibit cell elongation and cell division (mitosis) in the seedling before emergence of the leaf from the coleoptile thereby suppressing further development.
  • Symptoms: If the plant emerges the shoot is bright green in colour with leaves appearing crinkled or rounded. The plant is often not competitive.
  • Resistance mechanism: Not yet been identified although non-target site is suspected. Some research suggests plants increase the synthesis of gibberellic acid which results in more rapid growth enabling the plant to grow through the herbicide layer in the soil.

Confirmed Group J Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • Giant Parramatta grass
  • Serrated tussock

Common Group J Herbicides

Wheat
Avadex® Xtra
Boxer® Gold1

Fallow
Nil

Rice
Ordram®
Saturn®
Barley
Avadex Xtra
Boxer Gold1

Pasture
Nil
Grain legumes / pulses
Avadex Xtra

Oats
Nil

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group J Resistant Weeds

  • There is no product within the Bayer portfolio currently registered for the control of either giant Parramatta grass or serrated tussock.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 - Pre-mix product of two different MOA herbicides of which at least one is Group J herbicide;
Serrated Tussock

Group Kπ Mode of Action Herbicides (VLCFA inhibitors)

  • Chemical family: Chemical Acetamides (e.g Devrinol®), Chloroacetamides (e.g Boxer® Gold) and Isoxazoline (e.g Sakura®) are all Group K herbicides.
  • Mode of action: Inhibits cell growth and division by interfering with development of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA).
  • Symptoms: Typically affects susceptible weeds prior to emergence but does not inhibit seed germination.
  • Resistance mechanism: Is target-site and non-target site. Target site appears to be due to an altered VLCFA synthase binding site. Enhanced metabolism is also thought to be involved.

Confirmed Group K Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.♆

  • In Australia,in a laboratory environment Lolium rigidum has been found to be resistance to VLCFAs but only in multiple resistant biotypes.
  • Resistance has been confirmed in twelve weed species globally.

Common Group K Herbicides

Wheat
Boxer® Gold®1
Dual® Gold
Sakura®

Fallow
Nil

Rice
Nil
Barley
Boxer Gold1
Dual Gold

Pasture
Dual Gold
Grain legumes / pulses
Dual Gold
Outlook®

Oats
Dual Gold

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group K Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Atlantis®
Hussar®
Cheetah® Gold
Decision®
Eclipse®
Jaguar®
Precept®
Tigrex®
Velocity®

Fallow
Balance
Basta
Barley
Hussar
Cheetah Gold
Decision
Eclipse
Jaguar
Precept
Tigrex
Velocity

Pasture
Jaguar5
Tigrex6
Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®2
Brodal® Options®3
Eclipse4

Oats
Eclipse
Precept
Tigrex

Rice
Saturn®
Taipan®


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
♆ - R. Busi, Resistance to herbicides inhibiting the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids, wileyonlinelibrary.com, 2014
1 -Pre-mix product of two different MOA herbicides of which at least one is Group K herbicide; 2– Chickpeas only; 3 – Lupins and field peas; 4 – Lupins only; 5 – lucerne and sub clover only ; 6 – legume based pastures.


















































Group Lπ Mode of Action Herbicides:

  • Chemical family: Consists of one product from one major chemical family, the bipyridyls (e.g Gramoxone®).
  • Mode of action: Inhibit photosynthesis at photosytem 1 and in the process creates superoxide free radicals which destroys the cell membranes within the plant.
  • Symptoms: The destruction of cell membranes leads to wilting and desiccation, a process that happens within a few days under sunny, bright and warm conditions and within 5-14 days under dull, cloudy and cool conditions.
  • Resistance mechanism: Is still being studied. Some researchers believe it is associated with paraquat being deactivated before it reaches the site of action in chloroplasts. Others suggest resistant plants are less affected by the damaging free radicals generated by paraquat. Some also attribute resistance in some weeds to sequestration through enhanced transport to vacuoles.

Confirmed Group L Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • Annual ryegrass
  • Barley grass
  • Silver grass
  • Capeweed
  • Small square weed

Common Group L Herbicides

Wheat
Gramoxone®2
Reglone®9
Spray.Seed®2

Fallow
Gramoxone
Spray.Seed

Rice
Gramoxone2
Spray.Seed2
Barley
Gramoxone2
Spray.Seed2

Pasture
Gramoxone
Reglone
Spray.Seed2,8
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Gramoxone2
Reglone1
Spray.Seed2

Oats
Gramoxone2
Spray.Seed2

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group L Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Atlantis®
Hussar®
Cheetah® Gold
Decision®
Eclipse®
Jaguar®
Precept®
Sakura®
Tigrex®
Velocity®

Fallow
Balance
Barley
Hussar
Cheetah Gold
Decision
Eclipse
Jaguar
Precept
Tigrex
Velocity

Pasture
Jaguar6
Tigrex7
Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®3
Brodal® Options®4
Eclipse5

Oats
Eclipse
Precept
Tigrex


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 –Pre-harvest crop desiccation; 2 – Pre-sowing weed control; 3 – Chickpeas only; 4 – Lupins and field peas; 5 – Lupins only; 6 – lucerne and sub clover only ; 7 – legume based pastures; 8 – Weed control in established lucerne; 9 - Pre-harvest weed control.
Annual Ryegrass
Barley Grass
Capeweed

Group Mπ Mode of Action Herbicides (Inhibitors of PSP synthase)

  • Chemical family: Consists of one product from one major chemical family, the glycines (e.g. glyphosate).
  • Mode of action: Inhibit the chloroplast enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase which leads to depletion of key amino acids that are necessary for protein synthesis and plant growth.
  • Symptoms: Depending on growing conditions symptoms may take weeks to fully develop. The visual symptoms are first seen as chlorosis in the youngest parts of the plant followed by reddening of leaf margins.
  • Resistance mechanism: Involves both target- and non target-site. Target-site resistance caused by EPSP synthase gene modification and amplification whereas non target-site resistance is caused by a reduced glyphosate translocation mechanism. A further resistance mechanism, glyphosate metabolism, was recently identified but is yet to be independently verified.

Confirmed Group M Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • Annual ryegrass
  • Awnless barnyard grass
  • Brome grass
  • Flax-leaf fleabane
  • Liverseed grass
  • Common sowthistle
  • Windmill grass
  • Wild radish

Common Group M Herbicides

Wheat
Roundup®6
Weedmaster®6

Fallow
Roundup6
Weedmaster6

Rice
Roundup6
Weedmaster6
Barley
Roundup6
Weedmaster6

Pasture
Roundup6
Weedmaster6
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Roundup6
Roundup Ready®7
Weedmaster6

Oats
Roundup6
Weedmaster6

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group M Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Atlantis®
Hussar®
Cheetah® Gold
Decision®
Eclipse®
Jaguar®
Precept®
Sakura®
Tigrex®
Velocity®

Fallow
Balance
Basta
Barley
Hussar
Cheetah Gold
Decision
Eclipse
Jaguar
Precept
Tigrex
Velocity

Pasture
Jaguar4
Tigrex5
Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®1
Brodal® Options®2
Eclipse3

Oats
Eclipse
Precept
Tigrex


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 – Chickpeas only; 2 – Lupins and field peas; 3 – Lupins only; 4 – lucerne and sub clover only ; 5 – legume based pastures; 6 –pre-sowing weed control ; 7 – RR canola only.
Annual Ryegrass
Flaxleaf Fleabane
Windmill Grass

Group Nπ Mode of Action Herbicides (Inhibitors of glutamine synthase)

  • Chemical family: Consists of one product from one major chemical family, the phosphinic acids (glufosinate).
  • Mode of action: Inhibit glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in incorporating ammonium into amino acids. Blockage of this enzyme allows a buildup of phytotoxic levels of ammonia which leads to plant death.
  • Symptoms: Can often be seen within 1-3 days of application in warm conditions and 7-10 days under cold conditions. There is often an initial general yellowing, which enlarge as the plant wilts and collapses. Plant death will follow within 1 to 3 weeks.
  • Resistance mechanism: Is currently under investigation.

Confirmed Group N Resistant Weeds Species in Australia.*

  • No resistance yet identified in Australia. Resistance has been confirmed in two weeds species globally.

Common Group N Herbicides

Wheat
Nil

Fallow
Basta®

Rice
Nil
Barley
Nil

Pasture
Nil
Canola & Grain legumes / pulses
Nil

Oats
Nil

Bayer CropScience Herbicides for Management of Group N Resistant Weeds

Wheat
Atlantis®
Hussar®
Cheetah® Gold
Decision®
Eclipse®
Jaguar®
Precept®
Sakura®
Tigrex®
Velocity®

Fallow
Balance
Basta
Barley
Hussar
Cheetah Gold
Decision
Eclipse
Jaguar
Precept
Tigrex
Velocity

Pasture
Jaguar4
Tigrex5
Grain legumes / pulses
Balance®1
Brodal® Options®2
Eclipse3

Oats
Eclipse
Precept
Tigrex


Any product referred to must be used strictly in accordance with all instructions on the label for that product and in other applicable reference material.

Note:
Users should consult the registered product label before use
* - Source: CropLife List of herbicide resistant weeds in Australia, 12 June 2014
π - Source: CropLife Mode of Action Groups, 27 June 2013
1 – Chickpeas only; 2 – Lupins and field peas; 3 – Lupins only; 4 – lucerne and sub clover only ; 5 – legume based pastures;.